Ashmead’s History of Delaware County, part 1 – Wendell, Childs, Drexel,

In the Spring and Summer of 1949, when this column was just getting under way for a reading public that has since shown its consistent interest in the history of Radnor township, the writer described from time to time the appearance of Wayne in its early days. She wrote of the first roads and of the farms which bordered on them, and of Louella House, completed in 1867, which with the Presbyterian Church and the old Lyceum formed the nucleus of the little hamlet, first known as Cleaver’s Landing. She told, too, of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which succeed the old Lancaster & Columbia Railroad Company, and of the double tracks laid in 1860 by the former. And then she wrote at length of the Wayne Estate houses, built by Wendell and Treat on 600 acres of land, purchased by George W. Childs and A. J. Drexel, of Philadelphia.

But it was not until recently, when a copy of Henry Graham Ashmead’s “History of Delaware County” came into her possession through the courtesy of its owner, Richard W. Barringer, that this same writer could clearly visualize for herself the appearance of Wayne in the middle eighties, when “the little hamlet” had grown into a Main Line suburb. The “History” contains a concise description as given in the “Germantown Telegraph,” under date of July 2, 1884. According to this newspaper article, “a new town, or rather an aggregation of delightful suburban residences, is rapidly springing up within easy travelling distance of the city of Philadelphia, either by rail or Pike.” At that time not less than fifty “elegant residences” had been completed and occupied with about $600,000 invested in them, and others were under way by the owners, Drexel and Childs.

Writing in the first person, the author of the “Germantown Telegraph” article says that he proposed to describe a visit he recently made there, and state just what he saw. At the end of the half-hour ride from Broad Street Station he emerged from the railroad car and started along Wayne avenue. This was evidently to the South since he soon came into sight of Wayne Lyceum Hall (now the old Opera House, the future of which has recently been the cause of much discussion). On either side of Wayne avenue were “several beautiful cottages,” although “cottages” certainly seems a misnomer for three story homes. What remains of them may still be seen in several of the stores on this street.

Wayne Lyceum Hall is described as three stories high, built of brick and plaster, and costing $30,000. It contained at that time a general store, a drug store, the post office and the superintendent’s office, in addition to the larger auditorium above. On the corner now occupied by the Cobb and Lawless store was “the cottage” of J. Henry Askin, former owner of the land sold to Drexel and Childs. The Askin “cottage” is described as built of brick with a “spacious porch and a neat lawn.”

Near Mr. Askin’s home was the cottage belonging to a Mrs. Patterson, “a fine brick building.” North of Mrs. Patterson’s was “the large and substantial cottage” of Mr. Israel Solomon, of the Bingham House. Immediately adjoining Mr. Askin’s home to the west was a cottage occupied by Mr. William J. Phillips, “ex-superintendent of the Police and Fire Alarm Telegraph.” Next to Mr. Phillips’ place was the beautiful old home, surrounded by several acres of land, belonging to Mr. William D. Hughes. This estate has already been described in detail in this column.

Next to the Hughes property was the famous Bellevue Hotel, a good description of which the writer has not found until now, although she has made numerous references to the hotel. To quote from the description of the roving reporter of 1884:

“We now come to the beautifully situated Bellevue Mansion on Lancaster avenue. The mansion has been leased by Mr. Childs to Miss Mary Simmons and her sister, and is a charming summer resort. It has one hundred rooms, and each room has a private porch. Four porches run entirely around the mansion, and the building and surroundings cost over eighty thousand dollars. The mansion stands in the centre of a beautiful lawn, and is approached by a fine macademized road. The parlors present a most luxurious appearance, and the large and elegant dining room is where the ‘Aztec Club’ took their annual dinner before the death of General Robert Patterson. A handsome billiard-room or hall is near the mansion, and there are ice-houses, servants’ quarters, stables, gas-house, etc. The mansion is well supplied with fire-escapes, and the heating arrangements are excellent. There are a smoking room, card room, private parlors, etc.”

This fine old hotel, so popular over the years with summer visitors from Philadelphia, was burned to the ground on a bitter cold night in the winter of 1900. It was located on what is now the intersection of Lancaster Pike and Bellevue avenue (named for the hotel) on the property now occupied by the A&P store and the Anthony Wayne Service Station.

The “Germantown Telegraph” reporter in his wanderings found out about seven cottages just opposite the Bellevue Hotel, some of which were already under construction. They were described by him as “elegant” and “would contain twelve rooms, open hallways, parlor, dining room, library and kitchen on the first floor; four chambers and bathroom on the second floor, and the same on the third floor, and elegant wide porches . . . they are finished in imitation of hard wood, and built of brick and stone, with slate roofs, have hot and cold water, and are papered in the latest style.” Lots were one hundred feet front and three hundred feet deep.

These houses are still standing and in constant occupancy. In addition to the seven described, Mr. Abbott of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company built “a fine cottage” in this same development, and according to our reporter, who seems to have known something of the personal affairs of Wayne’s residents, Mr. Abbott planned to spend his honeymoon there.

(To be continued)

Wayne’s Company B, part 2 – Anthony J. Drexel Biddle

Company drills were routine for Wayne’s own “Company B”, the organization of which in the early days of World War I was described in last week’s column. Tuesday evenings of each week were devoted to squad drills and Thursday evenings to Company drills. Both were held on the Radnor School Field–offivers and privates alike took this military practice very seriously with the result that the company soon presented a fine appearance.

Eventually the group took up the study and practice of guard duty, in which members were required to memorize the twelve general orders for sentinels as weel as special orders for the sentinel at the posts of the guard. According to Captain Margerum, who has kept such a splendid record of his groups, “this feature of the evening to hear the several posts call out the hour and ‘all is well’ lent a glamour to the situation which few will forget.”

As drills were continued, membership steadily increased, in spite of the fact that many members were going into active service from time to time. Permanent squads were formed with corporals training their respective squads for competitive drill. Captain A. J. Drexel Biddle, U. S. M. C., who had just returned from the European battle front, reviewed a parade of Company B held on the old Biddle estate in Lansdowne. From there the Company procedded to the grounds of the St. Davids Golf Club with music and colors, for drill in extended order.

Aside from the manual of arms and the various maneuvers of company, platoon and squad, members of the Company were rigidly drilled in the matter of military deportment.

Chairman of the Recruiting Committee was A. M. Ware, who was very active in furnishing and placing notices throughout the township. His son, Albert A. Ware, was detailed to drill the awkward squads after he enlisted and went into Camp. According to one historian the Sergeant “was so efficient that he continued in this capacity until he came to the conclusion that his military training in Company B had been something of a detriment, as it kept him from seeing more active duty”.

When Captain Orme informed Company B in January, 1918, that he must resign because of a change of residence to New York, the Company gave him a farewell dinner at the Men’s Club. They also presented him with an inscribed sabre as a token of their esteem. From this time until May, 1918, the Company was under the command of the first lieutenant. At that time an election was held with all military formality, resulting in the unanimous choice of W. L. Margerum for Captain, Norman J. Coudert for first lieutenant and Herbert Plimpton for second lieutenant. On this same date, W. L. Margerum was commissioned a captain in the Philadelphia Military Training Corps.

Only a short time after leaving Wayne, Captain Orme died in New York of influenza. When he was buried from his residence in Wayne, Company B, by special permission of the health authorities, acted as a guard of honor at his home and at the Valley Forge Memorial Cemetery where he was buried. As a mark of respect, the officers of the company wore the usual mourning on the sword hilts for thirty days.

In July, 1918, Corporal Edward W. Maxwell resigned, as he was leaving for England. Supply Sergeant F. F. Adams also left Wayne about this time, while Private Edward Carey Gardner joined the marines.

Special occasions are worthy of notice of any review of Company B’s existence in Wayne. On Memorial Day, 1918, the Company marched to a point off Old Church road for field practice in attack and defense. On that same day, by invitation of Jarvis A. Wood, the company participated in a memorial service in the Central Baptist Church for Lieutenant William Bateman, Lieutenant Pennington Way and Corporal Norman Hallman, the latter a former member of Company B. The Rev. W. A. Patton also invited the Company to the memorial services held in the Wayne Presbyterian Church for Sergeant Wallace C. Dickson, who died in France.

At the Fourth of July celebration on the school field in that same year, Company B made their appearance when in addition to the manual of arms, company and platoon drills, they were deployed as skirmishers with blank cartridges. They gave an exhibition of this feature of the drill regulations. On the evening of the following day, by invitation of Major William C. Tuttle, the company joined the military rally at Bryn Mawr.

The conversion of the Saturday Club house into a hospital during the influenza epidemic has already been described in this column in the story of that organization. Both trained and volunteer nurses and other workers were on constant duty in the sickrooms and in the kitchen. Most of these were women. However, when strong arms were needed for handling delirious patients, a call to the men of Company B went out. In spite of the public dread of the disease the response was prompt.

Among organizations which were formed to operate on a more widespread basis during the days of World War I were a Committee of Public Safety for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the “American Protective League” for the whole country. The former was a Home Defense police force for the various counties of the State as created by Act of Assembly in July, 1917. Charles Wheeler, who was vice-director, appointed T. Truxtun Hare and W. L. Margerum as aides. Lieutenant Coudert was also a member of this organization. Captain Hare commanded Company B of this organization embracing Radnor Township. This Committee of Public Safety was not demobilized until April, 1921.

The American Protective League was organized with the approval of the United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Investigation, under whose direction it operated. In this organization W. L. Margerum was appointed lieutenant in April, 1918.

Several days after Armistice Day the Peace Jubilee was celebrated in Wayne by a rousing parade in which various local organizations participated. Headed by a detachment of Marines from the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Company B paraded with two bands of music, members of the Red Cross in Uniform, Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts and the fire company, all forming a column worthy of the occasion. Company B. paraded three platoons, with the first Sergeant in charge of the third platoon.

Soon comrades returning from overseas and from camps in this country were home. Among them was Captain Fallon, who had received a special decoration from the French Government because of his services in the Air Force. And of course there were many others.

By February, 1919, rifles of Company B were returned to the P. M. T. C. or delivered on order to other organizations. Among the latter were forty rifles turned over to St. Luke’s School, and sixty to Radnor High School.

Sergeant Edgar L. Hunt was mustered out of Company B. And soon the days of the Company’s activities were a thing of the past, to linger on only in the memories of those who had participated in its work, and those who had stood by admiringly as they saw what had been accomplished in such a short time.

(The End)

Wayne’s Company B, part 1 – Phila. Military Training Corps., Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Men’s Club of Wayne

In these days of “wars and rumours of wars” it might be interesting to review the history of Wayne’ own “Company B”, organized early in the days of America’s participation in World War I, primarily for the purpose of home defense. Like its neighboring communities, Radnor Township at that time was disturbed by the fear of internal disturbance, since war propaganda in regard to German families was rampant everywhere. And so in June, 1917, only two months after President Wilson’s declaration of war on Germany, a number of residents of Wayne, St. Davids, and other parts of Radnor Township formed Company B, Wayne Infantry, Philadelphia Military training Corps.

Composed originally of those who were beyond the age for active service, the Company soon had among its members many who were later to enter the active service. During its existence of something over a year it had 152 names on its roster. Of these, 42 entered the service, two of whom made the supreme sacrifice, Wallace C. Dickson and Norman B. Hallman.

This Philadelphia Military Training Corps, of which Company B was a part, was originally incorporated in 1916 under the laws of Pennsylvania. Sponsored by Major Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, it had its headquarters on the old Biddle estate in Lansdowne. Upon the outbreak of the war in Europe, Major Biddle delegated Captain Edward W. Macey to organize the Main Line for military drill.

The first company in Wayne was known as “Company A”, and although composed for the most part of excellent material, it did not long survive. It was in 1917 that its successor, Company B, was organized at a meeting of the Men’s Club of Wayne, still under the leadership of Captain Macey. Although its primary purpose was to act as a secondary line of defense in the absence of the regular army and the State Militia, Company B was desirous of giving primary military training to those who should later be called into the service.

The Men’s Club of Wayne immediately voted the use of its clubhouse as headquarters for this new military organization. Captain Milton W. Orme, who had had a long and active career in the Pennsylvania National Guard was the first commanding officer. He remained in this position until he moved to New York City, when he was succeeded by Captain Winfield L. Margerum, another active National Guardsman, who had been first lieutenant under Captain Orme. The former had been captain of Company A, First Regiment Infantry, N.G.P. Norman J. Coudert was second lieutenant under Captain Orme. He had formerly been connected with the Twenty-second Regiment of Infantry of New York State. Later Norman Coudert became first lieutenant under Captain Margerum and Herbert Plimpton became second lieutenant.

Because of his former military experience, T. Griffiths Roberts was selected as first-sergeant, a position he retained by his own choice throughout the existence of the company. According to our historian, “It was a pleasure to see him form the company in front of the Men’s Club, preparatory to turning it over to the commissioned officer in charge.” The other non-commissioned officers appointed at the first roll call in May, 1917, were: Sergeants, Herbert Plimpton, Charles H. Scott, W. L. Fox, Albert A. Ware, Wallace C. Dickson, C. L. S. Tingley, F. P. Radcliffe, W. H. Shuster, Edgar L. Hunt and J. Arthur Standen. Corporals were M. C. Prew, A. N. Elliott, E. W. Maxwell, Richard S. McKinley, Walter Pierson, Jr., J. Donaldson Paxton, W. M. Holloway, George R. Park and Henry H. Ziesing, who later became a first lieutenant of engineers.

Frank T. Adams was appointed supply sergeant, and was succeeded by Lance E. Booth, who remained in that position until the company was mustered out.

At a meeting of the company held on September 28, 1917, a civic organization was effected and by-laws adopted. Officers elected were Captain Orme, president; C. H. Wilson, vice-president; Wallace C. Dickson, secretary-treasurer. F. T. Adams succeeded Mr. Dickson when the latter entered the service.

For those men who did not equip themselves, uniforms, with campaign hats and hat cords, leggings and cartridge belts were provided by public spirited citizens. Among those who were active in creating this fund raised by the Men’s Club were A. M. Ware, William H. McCutcheon and Charles S. Harvey. Among the many liberal donors to the fund were Charles C. Shoemaker, then president of the Men’s Club, H. P. Conner and Walter Pierson, Sr., with his three sons.

Transient as its membership was, the attendance at drills averaged six to eight squads. The company was also always well represented at the weekend reviews of the C.M.T.C. at Major Biddle’s Lansdowne estate. It had grown to the point where 103 rifles were constantly employed, these rifles being furnished by the Philadelphia Military Training Corps.

Although many of the members of Company B were well beyond the years of active campaigning, others joined for the knowledge of the drill and army usages which would help them so greatly after they joined the colors. In Lansdowne they frequently participated in weekend drills, parades and reviews, when they gained experience in regimental and battalion maneuvers.

Routine work was sometimes relieved by the unusual. On one such occasion in May, 1918, Company B participated in the outdoor fete held on the estate of Mrs. Charles A. Munn, at Radnor. This was for the benefit of the overseas hospitals, under the auspices of the Emergency Corps of the American Red Cross. As Company B staged a sham battle using blank cartridges. Red Cross field work was demonstrated. Litter bearers, ambulance dressing stations and hospitals of the Red Cross gave an exhibition of what the work would be under real war conditions. Certain Company members even served as casualties, among them “Private” A. M. Ware, who was placed on a stretcher and carried into a hospital tent after he was “wounded.” Further particulars of his recovery are lacking, however.

(To be continued)

(For all the well authenticated facts in regard to Company B the writer is indebted to one who is thoroughly conversant with them, Captain W. L. Margerum, who wrote a series of articles for The Suburban some years ago.)

1913 Labor Day Circus, part 2 – “Society Circus”

Last week’s column surely recalled to Wayne’s old-timers that merry Labor Day now thirty-seven years past, when some 10,000 people gathered on the School Field to eat popcorn and peanuts as they witnessed the antics of clowns, performing at that Society Circus of 1913. We told you of ringmaster Van Schaick and the clown, Theodore T. Grayson; of the bareback riders Penman, Robert and Thomas Wood; of Wallace Dickson, snake charmer and A. J. D. Peterson, bearded lady.

But there were others, too, including Dr. Norman Sinclair, “for two years all the rage in Paris and Strafford”, who performed in a comedy riding act. After Dr. Sinclair came an animal act when Tom Walton was master of the wild beasts, and of the Wild Man, a very dangerous character, who, according to the program, had been captured less than two weeks before in Ithan. As impersonated by Ralph Weadley this Wild Man escaped from a side show at an inopportune moment, much to the consternation of the audience. But this was not all. For Osgood Sayen, as “Moke”, the monkey, stepped on the tail of the lion, George Ling, whereupon William Lynch, the tiger, joined in the fracas!

In the side shows, George C. Allen, “P. D. Q. R. S. V. P. Professor Nella, who had just completed a series of Chautauqua lectures on ‘Grape Juice and Our International Relations'”, exhibited his human curiosities. Among them were Crutze, strong man, as done by Thomas Hearne, and Lady Winne, whose snakes loved her as much as the program promised her audience would do. “Even Lillian Russell is jealous” of this lady as personified by Wallace Dickson. Others in the side show were William Holiday, who would “rather eat swords than watermelon”, and A. J. D. Peterson, the bearded lady, whose name was “Princess Pet”.

Besides side-shows there were eating contests. one was a bun and jelly number, another a huckleberry pie and still another was a watermelon contest. Almost impossible to believe is the fact that one person could possibly win two of these contests, as did Nicholas Tulena when he came away with the prize for both bun and watermelon eating. And Walter Fritz, according to the Public Ledger’s account “Stained his nose with glory and huckleberry as he ate himself into first place with pie.”

Quoit pitching began early and ended late with hundreds of men taking part in the contest. Thomas Costello won first place in the singles and Thomas Disken second place, with too many other prizes to enumerate among the numerous contestants.

In the baby show, according to the Ledger, “every baby got a blue ribbon just for being a baby”. Thirty-five infants in all were in the contest and all riding in beautiful decorated coaches. of great interest, of course, were the triplets, Redmond George, Eleanor Ida and Margaret Powell, children of Mr. and Mrs. Redmond Smith, of Rosemont. And then there was Eleanor Pearl Thomas, who as “fairy butterfly” took first prize for decoration while her cousin, Marie Thomas, had third place as “nymph of goldenrod” and Jean Law, as “fairy queen”, won second prize. Carl Rex Clark, as noted in last week’s column, won first prize for novel decoration of his small hay wagon. And George and Warren Lentz received a prize for their cart loaded with Fall flowers. In addition to the triplets, three sets of twins were exhibited in this event. Judges were Mrs. Theodore E. Wiedersheim, Mrs. McComb Elmer and Mrs. August von Bernuth.

Women patrons of the Circus were more than busy around flower exhibits and fancy work, and were faithful patrons of the gypsy caravan for it was there that they could have their fortunes told.

Great interest was shown in the exhibits of old dresses, quilts, fancy work and antique embroidery. Winners in these classes were Mrs. Silver and Mrs. Pile for samplers; Mrs. G. F. Hale for old handkerchiefs; Mrs. Petery, mrs. Austin Obdyke, Miss Margaret Elder and Mrs. McKenna for old-fashioned silk quilts, and Mrs. Silver and Mrs. Chapin for antique lace work.

Prominent Wayne women who won prizes in the cookery section were Mrs. Charles Fox, Mrs. W. H. Margerum and Mrs. Robert P. Elmer for large cakes; Mrs. H. B. Lienhardt, Mrs. Virginia Johnson and Mrs. Howard Adams for bread; Miss Katharine Gallagher and Mrs. Charles M. Sheaffer for rolls; Mrs. William Holman, Mrs. William B. Riley and Mrs Sheaffer for small cakes; Mrs. Marshall Ward, Mrs. William C. Lobb and Mrs. H. J. Warfield for preserves; Mrs. Brandt for pickles; Mrs. Marshall Ward, Mrs. Oscar Ward and Mrs. Oscar Russell for preserved vegetables and Mrs. Von Bernuth and Mrs. Riley for pies.

As this columnist glances once more through the old copies of the Philadelphia Press and the Public Ledger lent to her by T. Griffiths Roberts, she notes a few names not already mentioned. Among them are W. J. Buxton, “an impressive bandmaster”; Squire M. F. D. Scanlon, chairman of the Celebration Committee; Fred H. Treat, the “Mayor of Wayne”; officers Green, Muench and Erbaugh and Sergeant Crager of the Radnor Township Police Force. To all these and to many, many others of its citizens already mentioned, Wayne owed probably the greatest Labor Day celebration ever presented along the Main Line. Compared to it, last, Monday, in spite of the tremendous flow of traffic along the Pike, was quiet, indeed!

1913 Labor Day Circus, part 1 – “Society Circus”,

Except for closed stores, quiet business streets and an extra flow of automobile traffic along Lancaster avenue, next Monday will seem much like any other Monday in Wayne. But Labor Days have not always been like that in our town. There was Monday, September 1, 1913, when some 10,000 people gathered together on Radnor School field to witness a “Society Circus”, the like of which was never seen before, nor ever has been since–not in Wayne, at any rate!

Faded copies of the good old Public Ledger and of the Philadelphia Press printed the following morning tell the story by pictures and the printed columns. There are the three Wood brothers, Penman, Robert and Thomas, members of the Second City Troop and sons of Major John P. Wood, pictured as they did bareback stunts on two beautiful horses. “The champion fancy and bareback riders of the world”, and bareback riders of the world”, to quote the “Ledger”, certainly gave a daring exhibition!

And then there’s a picture of Theodore J. Grayson in a polka dot clown suit and B. L. VanSchaidk, chairman of the circus committee, in an elegant riding costume, including a tall silk hat and a coat with tails. Wallace C. Dickson is pictured as a snake charmer and just to prove his claims to that title, he has a large snake coiled around his waist. Standing with him is A. J. D. Peterson, the bearded lady, and very ladylike, indeed, in a high waisted silk dress and kid gloves reaching above the elbow.

Francis Leonard, queen of the gypsy caravan, is pictured with three fortune telling companions, Mona Whitlock, Margaret Riley and Mrs. B. L. VanSchaick.

Triplets from Rosemont are lying side by side in another picture, with a combined weight of 23 pounds at the tender age of 11 weeks. They are Redmond George Smith, Eleanor Ida Smith and Margaret Powell Smith, children of Mr. and Mrs. Redmond Smith. Still another picture shows Carl Rex Clark, “a wee fellow driving his pet goat ‘Billie’ and cuddling his dog ‘Gipsy!’ Carl Rex won first prize, too, for novel decoration of his wagon, “All hay and corn and squash”.

Boy Scouts, commanded by County Scout Executive, S. S. Aplin are pictured atop their 16-ft. tower where they gave “a remarkable exhibition of what to do if the tower is on fire and there are a lot of people holding a blanket for you to jump into. They jumped and carried each other about on stretchers”.

The reader goes through columns of printed matter to discover just why such a pretentious affair was staged on Labor Day, 1913. Apparently there was no attempt to make money for any purpose, charitable or otherwise. It was sufficient that expenses were cleared and that everyone had “the time of their lives” on the big holiday. And the fun started early and lasted “until long after the stars were telling folk that it was long past dinner time”. Those who served on the committee of arrangements were M. F. D. Scanlon, president; Matthew Randall, secretary and Frederick H. Treat, treasurer. And then there were not a few of the prominent citizens of Wayne and St. Davids who helped to make the day such a memorable one.

Three bands led the parade that swung around the Radnor High School grounds that day, making itself heard above the merry-go-round, the animals, the clowns and the crowds, The circus was given twice, for big as the tent was, it did not begin to hold the crowd that wanted to see what was going on. B. L. VanSchiack was the “typical ringmaster in yellow tights who coiled his big whip.”

The Cassons, Joseph Jr., 11 years old and William, aged 6, led the bill. These boys, it seemed, who had “made all Philadelphia marvel at their riding in the Devon Shows, turned tricks from their mounts that made their jockey father envious.”

Next on the program was a regular tumbling and gymnastic feature put on by T. Huber Stilwell and the “Gym” team of Radnor High School. Then came the clowns and the clown police. There was Lawrence Allen, programmed as “Splinters; his salary would make a plumber green with envy”; John M. Rogan, T. G. Roberts and Dr. J. A. Standen, billed as “Rogan and Yellum; their act isn’t a scream–it’s a yell”. Cops included Daniel M. Sheaffer, Frederick H. Treat, Jr., William Keator, Frederick Radcliffe, D. K. Dickson and T. G. Roberts. Other clowns included Dr. Norman Sinclair and Theodore Grayson, “night-stick gentlemen who gave all the old and a few new antics”.

(To be Continued)

The copies of the “Public Ledger” and the “Philadelphia Press” have been lent to the writer by T. Griffiths Roberts who has saved them all these 37 years.